Saturday, May 23, 2020

Definition and Examples of Testimony in Rhetoric

Testimony is a  rhetorical term for a persons account of an event or state of affairs. Etymology: from the Latin, witness Testimony is  of various kinds, said  Richard Whately in Elements of Rhetoric (1828), and may possess various degrees of force, not only in reference to its own intrinsic character, but in reference also to the kind of conclusion that it is brought to support. In his discussion of testimony, Whately examined the distinctions between matters of fact and matters of opinion, noting that there is often much room for the exercise of judgment, and for difference of opinion, in reference to things which are, themselves, matters of fact. Examples and Observations Four out of five dentists surveyed recommend Trident sugarless gum for their patients who chew gum! -(advertising claim made by Trident chewing gum)No wonder so many doctors now smoke and recommend King-Size Viceroys. -(advertising claim made in the 1950s by Viceroy cigarettes)One of the Soviet Georgias senior citizens thought Dannon was an excellent yogurt. She ought to know. Shes been eating yogurt for 137 years. -(advertising campaign for Dannon Yogurt)Extrinsic Proof as Testimony-  I define testimony as everything that is brought in and secured from some external circumstance for the purpose of gaining a conviction. The best witness, therefore, is one who has, or is perceived by the jury to have, authority. -(Cicero, Topica, 44 B.C.)- Cicero stated that all extrinsic proofs rely chiefly upon the authority granted by the community to those who make them (Topics IV 24). In other words, Cicero defined all extrinsic proof as testimony. In keeping with Ciceros remark, we might argue that facts are a kind of testimony since their accuracy depends upon the care taken by the person who establishes them as facts and upon his reputation in relevant communities, as well. -(Sharon Crowley and Debra Hawhee, Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students, 3rd ed. Pearson, 2004)George Campbell on Evaluating Testimony (The Philosophy of Rhetoric, 1776)Although [George] Campbell does not provide a detailed discussion of the guidelines to be used in evaluating the reliability of a rhetors testimony, he does list the following criteria that may be used in corroborating or invalidating the claims of a witness: 1. The reputation of the author and the manner of his or her address.2. The nature of the fact attested.3. The occasion and disposition of the hearers to whom it was given.4. The design or motives of the witness.5. The use of concurrent testimony. When these criteria are met, and are consistent with experience, a high level of persuasion may be achieved. -(James L. Golden et al., The Rhetoric of Western Thought: From the Mediterranean World to the Global Setting, 8th ed. Kendall Hunt, 2003)Testimony of Condoleezza RiceOn August 6, 2001, over a month before 9/11, during the summer of threat, President Bush received a Presidential Daily Briefing (PDB) at his Crawford, Texas ranch indicating that bin Laden might be planning to hijack commercial airliners. The memo was entitled Bin Laden Determined to Strike inside US, and the entire memo focused on the possibility of terrorist attacks inside the US. In testimony before the 9/11 Commission, Condoleezza Rice, National Security Advisor to President Bush, stated to the commission that she and Bush considered the August 6th PDB as just an historical document and stated that it was not considered a warning. -(D. Lindley Young, The Modern Tribune, April 8, 2004)Richard Whately on Matters of Fact and OpinionObserving that argument from testimony is related mostly to jurisprudence, [Richard] Whately [1787-1863] observes two kinds of Testimony that can be used to support the truth of a premise: testimony regarding matters of fact, in which a witness testifies to matters verified by the senses, and testimony regarding matters of opinion, in which a witness offers a judgment based on common sense or deduction. As a form of argument from signs, testimony convinces by presenting evidence of an effect from which a cause or condition can be inferred. -(Nan Johnson, Nineteenth-Century Rhetoric in North America. Southern Illinois University Press, 1991)The Testimony of WitnessesContemporary rhetoric includes a kind of testimony that was absent from ancient considerations: statements by persons who were physically present at an event. The authority of proximate witnesses derives not from their wisdom or their professional expertise but from the modern presumption that evidence provided by the senses is reliable and credible. . . .The worth of testimony offered by proximate witnesses must pass sever al tests. First, a witness must be in a position to observe the events in question. Second, conditions must be such that a witness can adequately perceive an event. Third, the witnesss state of mind at the time must be conducive to her accurate observation and reporting. If this is not the case, her testimony must be modified accordingly. Fourth, in keeping with modern faith in empirical evidence, testimony offered by a proximate witness is more valuable than evidence offered by someone who was not present. -(Sharon Crowley and Debra Hawhee, Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students, 3rd ed. Pearson, 2004) Pronunciation: TES-ti-MON-ee

Monday, May 11, 2020

Gender, Gender And Sexual Orientation Essay - 2043 Words

America, a country that preaches equality for all and may be considered the land of opportunity, has had a bad history of oppressing groups that differs from the norm: white, heterosexual, and male. While legislation has been passed to rectify past oppression of racial, gender and sexual orientation groups, America remains a patriarchal society whose institutions are structurally designed to favor white, cisgender, heterosexual males. The film Higher Learning, brings to light this issue of institutional racism, while perpetuating in majority of the male characters what the ideal man represents and how that is related to racial issues and sexual orientation in the film. Issues of homosexuality is not only brought up in opposition of masculinity, but also femininity. Thus, American society has an attitude or belief that endorses hyper masculinity in males, but this is not viewed as a positive attribution in African Americans, nor is homosexuality considered a normative behavior. The so cialization of gender, specifically men, has caused the development of societal expectations of what traits are deemed desirable in a man. Masculinity in the film is defined by aggressive behavior, strength, power, athleticism and sexual attraction to the opposite sex. Men, depending on their race, who exhibit these traits are viewed by society as being a part of the norm. In the film, there were many examples of men of all ethnicities who fit this criteria, such as: Malik, a star trackShow MoreRelatedGender Orientation And Sexual Orientation1613 Words   |  7 Pagesand lesbians do not choose their sexual orientation, but rather are born with it? There has been extensive research proving that sexual orientation is caused by many biological factors, whereas there is no solid proof that social factors after birth affect sexual orientation (Swaab, 2007, p. 442). Sexual orientation is already programmed into the brain, with the influence of sex hormones and genes, before a child is ev en born. The development of sexual orientation is caused by sex hormones, genesRead MoreSexual Orientation And Gender Orientation Essay903 Words   |  4 Pagese Henry Paper 4 Sexual orientation The theme that we have been focusing on in class for the past two weeks is sexual orientation. Sexual orientation is more complex than just the gender a person is attracted to. Instead sexual orientation is on more of a spectrum. On one end of the spectrum a person can be solely heterosexual and on the opposite side a person can be completely homosexual. This also means that a person can be bisexual if they identify more in the middle of the spectrum. TheRead MoreGender Orientation And Sexual Orientation Essay1849 Words   |  8 PagesGender and sexual orientation is a topic that has been and still today is not talked about in such a way it should be because of how society has chosen to structure and control it. Social stratification is a system in which groups of people are divided up into layers according to their relative privileges (power, property, and prestige). It’s a way of ranking large groups of people into a hierarchy according to their relative privileges (Vela-Mc Connell 2016). People, who deviate from the norm ofRead MoreThe Sexual Orientation And Gender1455 Words   |  6 Pages The two individuals I interviewed are homosexual males that differ from me in their sexual orientation and gender. I met my first interviewee for an hour on Wednesday, September 21st, and I met my second interviewee for an hour on Wednesday, September 28th. Through these interviews, I learned a great deal about each individual and it allowed me to gain insight into each of their lives. The first individual I interviewed is named Brandon and lives in Lebanon, Missouri. He was born in Osage BeachRead MoreGender, Sexual Orientation And Education1746 Words   |  7 PagesIn today’s society, there are divides that impede the movement of progress. These divides may disperse around a number of issues that revolve around gender, religion, sexual orientation and education. These divides have created an un-opened minded society that judge people and groups based on the prejudices and stereotypes that treat them differently. In the aspect of identity discrimination, American society plays a big role in keeping those that are different isolated from the rest of the worldRead MoreGender And Sexual Orientation Of Diversity1582 Words   |  7 Pagestourism and hospitality industry. At present the gender and sexual orientation not only are held hostage-cutting in various parts of the world changes in the process, but also by the transformation of society throughout the t housand-state changes. They put gender as a key variable, focusing inspected it with other social differences cross interaction. In their view, all grades are interrelated, gender, race, ethnicity, national, class, sexual orientation, age, geographical, and many of the differencesRead MoreSexual Orientation And Gender Identity863 Words   |  4 PagesRecent studies estimate that between one and nine million children in the United States have at least one parent who is either lesbian, gay, or transgender. However, many people feel uncomfortable about being open due to their sexual orientation and gender identity due to fears of discrimination; such fears include, but are not limited to, loss of employment, loss of child custody, anti-gay violence and hate crimes. Although many people may have distinctive opinions on certain outcomes or effectsRead MoreSexual Orientation : Sex And Gender1783 Words   |  8 PagesToday I will be weighing in on the essentialism vs constructioni^^^sm d ebate on sexual orientation. Before I proceed further I must define sexual orientation which in turn needs me to define sex and gender. What is sexual orientation? There is the behavioral where one’s sexual orientation is defined by the sex of the person that he or she has sex with. If one has sex with a person of the same sex then they are homosexual and if they have sex with someone from the different sex then they are heterosexualRead MoreSexual Orientation And Gender Identity2164 Words   |  9 Pages As mainstream media is now embracing the once taboo topics of sexual orientation and gender identity as popular culture utilities, psychologists and medical professionals are still researching the biological, psychological, and social differences between the two. Since the phenomena of  ¨coming out, or openly identifying as a sexual orientation or gender identity besides heterosexual or cisgender respectively, is a relatively recent anomaly, there is limited but contemporary research. The analysesRead MoreGender Identity And Sexual Orientation3311 Words   |  14 PagesIn today’s day in age, different sexualities and gender identities are quickly becoming more accepted in mainstream society. Despite this change, there are many people who believe that having a different sexual orientation or gender identity is a choice that is frowned upon. In order to refute this belief, research and biology of the brain is necessary. Researching the brain on the basis of sexuality is a fa irly new topic of discussion because it is somewhat difficult and confusing. This paper will

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Leadership Profle Mother Teresa Free Essays

Leadership Profile: Mother Teresa Mother Teresa is a fine example of a leader in today’s culture. Her profound ways of humble and servant leadership has forever shaped the way this world looks at those who live without. Her prime example of ethical use of power has become an example to those who have a great deal of persuasion in this world. We will write a custom essay sample on Leadership Profle: Mother Teresa or any similar topic only for you Order Now The example being, that one does not need money, power, an office, staff, an overbearing voice, or a tottering society, to change the world. Instead, all that is needed is a conviction, a heart of humility, and a life of devotion. Born Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu on August 26, 1910, in Skopje, Macedonia, she was the youngest of three children. In her teens, Agnes became a member of a youth group in her local parish called Sodality. Through her involvement with their activities guided by a priest, Agnes became interested in missionaries. At age 17, she responded to her first call of a vocation as a Catholic missionary nun. She joined an Irish order, the Sisters of Loretto, a community known for their missionary work in India. When she took her vows as a Sister of Loretto, she chose the name Teresa after Saint Therese of Lisieux. the Patron Saint of missionaries) In Calcutta, Sister Teresa taught geography and catechism at St. Mary’s High School. In 1944, she became the principal of St. Mary’s. Soon Sister Teresa contracted tuberculosis, was unable to continue teaching and was sent to Darjeeling for rest and recuperation. It was on the train to Darjeeling that she received her second call — â€Å"the call within the call†. Mother Teresa recalled later, â€Å"I was to leave the convent and work with the poor, living among them. It was an order. I knew where I belonged but I did not know how to get there. Mother Teresa started a school in the slums to teach the children of the poor. She also learned basic medicine and went into the homes of the sick to treat them. In 1949, some of her former pupils joined her. They found men, women, and children dying on the streets who were rejected by local hospitals. The group rented a room so they could care for helpless people otherwise condemned to die in the gutter. In 1950, the group was established by the Church as a Diocesan Congregation of the Calcutta Diocese. It was known as the Missionaries of Charity. In 1952 the first Home for the Dying was opened in space made available by the City of Calcutta. Over the years, Mother Teresa’s Missionaries of Charity grew from 12 to thousands serving the â€Å"poorest of the poor† in 450 centers around the world. Mother Teresa created many homes for the dying and the unwanted from Calcutta to New York to Albania. She was one of the pioneers of establishing homes for AIDS victims. For more than 45 years, Mother Teresa comforted the poor, the dying, and the unwanted around the world. Mother Teresa gained worldwide acclaim with her tireless efforts on behalf of world peace. Her work brought her numerous humanitarian awards, including: the Pope John XXIII Peace Prize and the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979. In receiving this award, Mother Teresa revolutionized the award ceremony. She insisted on a departure from the ceremonial banquet and asked that the funds, $6,000 be donated to the poor in Calcutta. This money would permit her to feed hundreds for a year. Beginning in 1980, homes began to spring-up for drug addicts, prostitutes, battered women, and more orphanages and schools for poor children around the world. In 1985, Mother Teresa established the first hospice for AIDS victims in New York. Later, homes were added in San Francisco and Atlanta. Mother Teresa was awarded the Medal of Freedom, the highest U. S. civilian award. On February 3, 1994, at a National Prayer Breakfast sponsored by the U. S. Senate and House of Representatives, in Washington, DC, Mother Teresa challenged the audience on such topics as family life and abortion. She said, â€Å"Please don’t kill the child. I want the child. Give the child to me. Mother Teresa traveled to help the hungry in Ethiopia, radiation victims at Chernobyl, and earthquake victims in Armenia. Her zeal and works of mercy knew no boundaries. Mother Teresa was a leader in both the political realm as well as the business realm, though she would have never claimed as being so. She never campaigned for any kind of office, nor did she ever start a business to make money. Instead, she became a leader in the world that she was born into, the worl d that she lived in. Mother Teresa was a leader, as unit one explains, someone who knew who she was and where she was going. Her perception of self was that of someone who grasped the truth; the only way to solve a problem was to work for it. Her perception of self was that of a simple servant. She was perhaps a leader that will forever live for her examples of service and the unique ability to lead those who have given their lives to the Lord, and those even just searching. She was able to attain and sustain the people that chose to join her in her life’s mission by continually convicting them of the need of these works to be done in a world that is starving for such. And she did it by jumping in first. Physical danger or diseases never compromised her mission and vision. She always passed and presented that risk to those who joined her, and convinced to live fearlessly and with trust is the Lord, which compelled more people to follow. She was a leader that presented, to herself and followers, a new way to view and care for the poor, dying, hungry, and naked. A view that was Truth. A view that slowly convicts the hearts of today’s world and convicts us to not be bound by fear for our own beings, but to recklessly do good in this world for those who are in need. She had the quality of a leader that could stir things up in this culture and create conflicts that led to boundless resolutions. Resolutions that would forever be marked and lived out by generations to come. Mother Teresa is a fine example and definition of what it means to be a â€Å"Servant Leader†. She was a servant leader in ways this world needs more of. She was someone that did not work for money, fame, power, or immortality, but rather she worked to change the world that she lived in. Mother Teresa was able to acquire followers that were not seen as followers, but fellow missionaries. Some of these people were even students that she had taught in the past. These fellow missionaries joined her because of the example that she set before the world. They were not following her for what they were hoping to receive malleably from the world, but to change it. Mother Teresa did not lead by asking or demanding, but instead by challenging and loving. She was a leader in community. First, it was a community of just a couple of people living with the same convictions, and then quickly grew to worldwide communities. She always expressed something that is very important for any servant leader to express– Unlimited Liability. She showed this to those who had joined her, but most of all, to those of whom she was devoting her life to. She knew that her mission was to serve those In need. And in order to fully apprehend this, she lived the life of those of whom she was serving. She never separated herself, or put herself at a level that was unattainable for those who she lived for and with. If the people that she served had no heater in the winter, then she would live with no heater. Above all the traits and unique qualities that Mother Teresa was blessed to posses in order to lead such movements in both political and business realms, her vision is truly what had convicted the world. And will continue to convict generations of missionaries and laity in the future. Her vision was something that she held close to her heart. A vision that was a matter of life for her, but at the same time, was attainable for anyone who wished to follow. She lived a vision that brought life to those who are forgotten. It is a vision that brings dignity to all forms and stages of life. At the same time, a vision that brings dignity to the very life of who is participating in this vision. It is a vision that one must be devoted to, and as the devotion continues, as does the weight of the vision in this world. A change that is brought about through, rather than by, one person at a time. Mother Teresa passed on September 5th, 1997. She has been appointed for Canonization, and is now Beatified and referred to as Blessed Mother Teresa. How to cite Leadership Profle: Mother Teresa, Papers

Friday, May 1, 2020

FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYSIS Essay Example For Students

FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYSIS Essay FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYSIS These notes form only the merest introduction into this topic and you will need to do further reading around the subject yourself if you are going to gain more detailed insights into this area of psychology. The aim of this handout is to clarify the basic principles of Freuds theories and to raise the main issues. It is important to be clear about the meanings of certain terms that you may come across and throughout the handout you will find footnotes clarifying certain terms. Firstly though, a word about the terms psychoanalysis and psychodynamics. Psychoanalysis refers to both Freuds original attempt at providing a comprehensive theory of the mind and also to the associated treatment. The term encompasses both Freudian theory and therapy. You will also come across the term psychodynamics. This term is used to denote the approach which began with psychoanalysis but which has now broadened into a much more diverse collection of theories and models developed by other psychologists, all of which nevertheless retain some of the main ideas of Freuds original theory. We will write a custom essay on FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYSIS specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now 1.8.1BACKGROUNDSigmund Freud was born in 1856 in Moravia, which was then part of the Austrian Empire and is now in the Czech Republic. He spent most of his life in Vienna, from where he fled, in 1937, when the Nazis invaded. Neither Freud (being Jewish) or his theories were very popular with the Nazis and he escaped to London where he died in 1939. He had wanted to be a research scientist but anti-Semitism forced him to choose a medical career instead and he worked in Vienna as a doctor, specialising in neurological disorders (disorders of the nervous system). He constantly revised and modified his theories right up until his death but much of his psychoanalytic theory was produced between 1900 and 1930. Freud originally attempted to explain the workings of the mind in terms of physiology and neurology (but) quite early on in his treatment of patients with neurological disorders, Freud realised that symptoms which had no organic or bodily basis could imitate the real thing and that they were as real for the patient as if they had been neurologically caused. So he began to search for psychological explanations of these symptoms and ways of treating them. In 1885 he spent a year in Paris learning hypnosis from the neurologist Charcot; he then started using hypnosis with his patients in Vienna. However, he found its effects to be only temporary at best and it did not usually get to the root of the problem; nor was everybody capable of being hypnotised. Meanwhile Breuer, another Viennese doctor, was developing another method of therapy which he called the cathartic method, where patients would talk out their problems. Freud adopted Breuers method and called it free association which became one of the three fundamental tools of psychoanalysis. Freud began his self-analysis during the 1890s and in 1900 published The Interpretation of Dreams, in which he outlined his theory of the mind, followed by The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1904), A Case of Hysteria and Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905). Two of Freuds closest colleagues, Carl Jung and Alfred Adler, helped him form the psychoanalytic movement and the first International Psychoanalytic Congress was held in Salzburg in 1908. The Journal of Psychoanalysis was first published in 1909 and, in that year, Freud and Jung made a lecture tour of the USA. (From Gross, R (1996) Psychology, The Science of Mind and Behaviour, page 508)1.8.2 FREUDS STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITYFreud compared the human personality to an iceberg. The small part that shows above the surface of the water represents conscious experience ; the much larger mass below the water level represents the unconscious a storehouse of impulses, passions, and inaccessible memories that affect our thoughts and behaviour. It is this portion of the mind that Freud sought to explore with the use of free association. Freud also believed that personality was composed of three major systems: the id, the ego and the superego. Each system has its own functions but the three interact to govern behaviour. (a)The idThe id is the most primitive part of the personality and the first to develop. It is present in the newborn infant. It is located in the unconscious and it is from the id that the ego and the superego later develop. The id consists of the basic biological impulses (or drives): the need to eat, drink, eliminate wastes, avoid pain and gain sexual pleasure. Freud also believed that aggression was a basic biological drive. The id seeks immediate gratification of these impulses. Like a young child, the id operates on the pleasure principle : it endeavours to avoid pain and obtain pleasure regardless of the external circumstances. .u56d35e8f2d6f3ef3d1e901c3bb859007 , .u56d35e8f2d6f3ef3d1e901c3bb859007 .postImageUrl , .u56d35e8f2d6f3ef3d1e901c3bb859007 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u56d35e8f2d6f3ef3d1e901c3bb859007 , .u56d35e8f2d6f3ef3d1e901c3bb859007:hover , .u56d35e8f2d6f3ef3d1e901c3bb859007:visited , .u56d35e8f2d6f3ef3d1e901c3bb859007:active { border:0!important; } .u56d35e8f2d6f3ef3d1e901c3bb859007 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u56d35e8f2d6f3ef3d1e901c3bb859007 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u56d35e8f2d6f3ef3d1e901c3bb859007:active , .u56d35e8f2d6f3ef3d1e901c3bb859007:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u56d35e8f2d6f3ef3d1e901c3bb859007 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u56d35e8f2d6f3ef3d1e901c3bb859007 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u56d35e8f2d6f3ef3d1e901c3bb859007 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u56d35e8f2d6f3ef3d1e901c3bb859007 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u56d35e8f2d6f3ef3d1e901c3bb859007:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u56d35e8f2d6f3ef3d1e901c3bb859007 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u56d35e8f2d6f3ef3d1e901c3bb859007 .u56d35e8f2d6f3ef3d1e901c3bb859007-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u56d35e8f2d6f3ef3d1e901c3bb859007:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Downfall of Macbeth Essay(b)The egoAs the child develops it learns that their impulses cannot always be immediately gratified. Some must be delayed (for example, hunger must wait until someone provides food) and some (for example, hitting someone) may be punished. A new part of the personality, the ego, develops as the young child learns to consider the demands of reality. The ego constitutes our conscious self and obeys the reality principle : It is essentially the part of personality that decides what actions are appropriate and which id impulses will be satisfied in what manner. The ego mediates among the demands of the id, the realities of the world and the demands of the superego. (c)The superegoThe superego, is the internalised representation of the values and morals of society as taught to the child by the parents and others. It is essentially the individuals conscience.The superego decides whether an action is right or wrong. Initially, parents control a childs behaviour directly by reward and punishment. Through the incorporation of parental standards into the superego, behaviour is brought under self-control. The superego develops in response to parental rewards and punishments. In summary, the id seeks pleasure, the ego tests reality and mediates, the superego constrains and strives for perfection. Not surprisingly, the three components of personality are in constant conflict: the ego postpones the gratification the id wants immediately and the superego battles with both because behaviour often falls short of the moral code it represents. 1.8.3MANAGING THE CONFLICTIn order to deal with this conflict, the ego develops a series of defence mechanisms which allow it to protect itself from the pressures of the id, the real world and the superego. Examples are:Repression burying a memory so thoroughly that it is not recalled at all it never happened. Projection attributing own unwanted bad feelings or ideas to another person. Rationalisation making up a reasonable excuse for unacceptable behaviour and really believing it. Suppression forgetting a shocking event on purpose: (consciously in this case) putting it out of ones mind. Denial refusing to acknowledge something because it is so distressing. Displacement transferring feelings from one person or object to another. Identification imitating someone who is admired and modelling oneself on them. Reaction-Formation consciously substituting the opposite emotion for true feelings about someone/something. Freud believed that conflict is inevitable and all behaviour is a compromise. Conflict is the primary cause of human anxiety and unhappiness. Defence mechanisms are one way we have of dealing with our inner conflict; neurotic symptoms and dreaming are the other major forms of compromise. 1.8.4THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITYFreud believed that the individual, during the first five years of life, progresses through several developmental stages that affect personality. Applying a broad definition of sexuality, he called these periods psychosexual stages. During each stage, the pleasure-seeking impulses of the id focus on, and derive pleasure from, a particular area of the body and on activities connected with that area. Freud called the first year of life the oral stage of psychosexual development. During this period, infants derive pleasure from nursing and sucking; in fact, they will put anything they can reach into their mouth. During the second year of life, the anal stage, as children have their first experience with imposed control in the form of their toilet training. In the phallic stage, from about age 3 to age 6, children focus on their genitals. They observe the differences between males and females and may direct their awakening sexual impulses toward the parent of the opposite sex. It is at this stage that children have to resolve the Oedipus and Electra complexes. A latency period follows the end of the phallic stage, during which children become less concerned with their bodies and turn their attention to the skills needed for coping with the environment. The last stage, the genital stage, occurs during adolescence, during which young people begin to turn their sexual interests toward others and to love in a more mature way. Freud felt that special problems at any stage could arrest (or fixate) development and have a lasting effect on the individuals personality. The libido would remain attached to the activities appropriate for that stage. Thus a person who was weaned very early and did not have enough sucking pleasure might become fixated at the oral stage. As an adult, this person may be excessively dependent on others and overly fond of such oral pleasures as eating, drinking and smoking. Such a person is called an oral personality. The person fixated at the anal stage of psychosexual development may be abnormally concerned with cleanliness, orderliness, and saving. 1.8.5MODIFICATIONS OF FREUDS THEORIESLater psychoanalysts felt that Freud placed too much emphasis on the instinctive and biological aspects of personality and failed to recognise that people are products of the society in which they live. The neo-Freudians including Alfred Adler, Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Carl Jung and Harry Stack Sullivan, considered personality to be shaped more by the people, society, and culture surrounding the individual than by biological needs. They placed less emphasis on the controlling power of the unconscious, believing that people are more rational in their planing and decisions than Freud thought. .ud90143e21bf625176be13d16cee22820 , .ud90143e21bf625176be13d16cee22820 .postImageUrl , .ud90143e21bf625176be13d16cee22820 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ud90143e21bf625176be13d16cee22820 , .ud90143e21bf625176be13d16cee22820:hover , .ud90143e21bf625176be13d16cee22820:visited , .ud90143e21bf625176be13d16cee22820:active { border:0!important; } .ud90143e21bf625176be13d16cee22820 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ud90143e21bf625176be13d16cee22820 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ud90143e21bf625176be13d16cee22820:active , .ud90143e21bf625176be13d16cee22820:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ud90143e21bf625176be13d16cee22820 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ud90143e21bf625176be13d16cee22820 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ud90143e21bf625176be13d16cee22820 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ud90143e21bf625176be13d16cee22820 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ud90143e21bf625176be13d16cee22820:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ud90143e21bf625176be13d16cee22820 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ud90143e21bf625176be13d16cee22820 .ud90143e21bf625176be13d16cee22820-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ud90143e21bf625176be13d16cee22820:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Pro Choice among Women Essay1.8.6PSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPYThe aim of psychoanalytic therapy is to bring about a fundamental change in the patients personality so that he is released from his neurotic disorders. Freud believed that neurosis was caused by the repression of disturbing feelings and emotions associated with conflicts established in early childhood. These conflicts result from the impulses of the id or the strictures of an over demanding superego. He assumed that the patients ego was too weak to cope with such conflicts and defended itself by repressing them into the unconscious. However, conflicts do not go away; they find expression through the symptoms and neuro tic behaviour of the patients. The aims of psychoanalysis are to remove the infantile conflict from the unconscious and help the patient deal with it at a conscious level. Psychoanalytic therapy normally has two stages:1.the release of repression, thereby allowing the conflict to enter consciousness, and,2.the redirection of the emotional energy (libido) associated with the repression thereby allowing the patients ego to gain control of the conflict. Freud developed various techniques for getting round the controlling forces of the defence mechanisms to reveal the unconscious material which is trying to gain expression. One of the original methods employed by Freud was hypnosis, but as has already been mentioned, he found this technique unsatisfactory and soon began using free association. Later Carl Jung, one of Freuds students developed a similar technique known as word association , and both methods are still widely used in present-day psychoanalysis. Another technique for getting at unconscious material is the interpretation of dreams .Another route into the unconscious is via the errors of everyday life, so-called Freudian slips. Present day psychoanalysts also regard certain physiological cues such as posture, blushing or pallor and changes in the timbre of the patients voice as important expressions of unconscious motives and feelings. 1.8.7AN EVALUATION OF THE PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACHPsychoanalytic theory has had an enormous impact on psychological and philosophical conceptions of human nature. Freuds major contributions are his recognition that unconscious needs and conflicts motivate much of out behaviour and his emphasis on the importance of early childhood experiences in personality development. His emphasis on sexual factors led to an awareness of their role in adjustment problems. But Freud made his observations during the Victorian period when sexual standards were very strict; so it is understandable that many of his patients conflicts centred on their sexual desires. Today, feelings of guilt about sex are much less frequent, yet the incidence of mental illness remains about the same. Sexual conflicts are not the only cause of personality disturbances and may not even be a major cause. Some critics also point out that Freuds theory of personality is based almost entirely on his observations of emotionally disturbed patients and may not be an appropriate of the normal, healthy personality. In addition, many of Freuds ideas were decidedly sexist. For example, his theory that female psychosexual development is shaped by penis envy and feelings of unworthiness due to the lack of such equipment is certainly inadequate in view of our current awareness of the role that social factors play in gender identification.It was probably not her brothers penis that a little girl during the Victorian era envied but his greater independence power and social status. Although psychoanalysis has exerted a powerful influence on our thinking about human nature, it has been seriously questioned as a scientific theory. Freuds constructs are ambiguous and difficult to define. He does not specify, for example, what behaviours indicate that a child is fixated at the anal stage of psychosexual development and what behaviours indicate that he or she is not fixated. For any body of theory to be accepted as a valid scientific perspective, its consequences must be statable. The hypothesis that fixation at the anal stage can lead to stinginess (or to the opposite, generosity) is evidently not refutable; whatever the outcome, the theory can account for it. To that extent the psychoanalytic approach fails to meet the criteria of a scientific theory. Because some important aspects of psychoanalytic theory cannot be proven experimentally, some psychologists claim that it has no value either as psychology or as science (Eysenck 1972). However, many others claim that experimental validity is an inappropriate yardstick for evaluating psychodynamic theory and that the theory is verified in practice in the analyst-patient interview. Words/ Pages : 2,440 / 24

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Baffled by choosing keywords for your LinkedIn Profile HEADLINE

Baffled by choosing keywords for your LinkedIn Profile HEADLINE Many people are flummoxed when it comes to choosing a LinkedIn profile headline.   What keywords should they include?   How do you get that up and down symbol ( or a Tagline / Unique Selling Proposition (USP)? This article will mainly address the last question:   Keywords or USP?   The answer to the question depends on your main goal with your LinkedIn profile. Below you will find several situations you might be in.   Find yourself as closely as possible and handle your headline in the most appropriate way for your situation.   If you don’t find yourself exactly, find the nearest match and adjust from there. 1.   You are a job seeker and you want to be found in searches.* If you are a job seeker, your main goal is probably to be found and contacted by recruiters and hiring managers.   If so, you need to focus on keywords in your headline.   Keywords are the terms a recruiter would be searching for if looking for someone like you. The prevailing wisdom is to choose 4-5 words as keywords and leave it at that.   Adding extra words or extra characters like your email address may serve to dilute the effectiveness of your headline. Examples of good headlines are: Manufacturing Supply Chain Executive | Asia Procurement Contract Specialist | Treasury Manager Account Executive | OEM Sales | Field Sales | Territory Manager Director Communications | Branding | Online Marketing | Social Media Note these headlines zero in on the most essential keywords and do not add any fluff to dilute their impact. Some job seekers write â€Å"Open to New Opportunities† in their headline.   Some recruiters actually search on the term â€Å"opportunities† and might find you that way.   Other recruiters will skip over you if you put that phrase in your headline.   My advice is to try it one way, and if you’re not getting the attention you want, try it another way.   That’s the beauty of social media †¦Ã‚   nothing is ever engraved in stone. 2.   You are a job seeker and your main goal is to look good when people find you. Perhaps you are currently employed and doing a very selective and confidential job search.   Or perhaps you want people to look for you primarily after you have contacted them.   If so, you may not particularly be looking to be found in searches.   In this situation, you have more flexibility when crafting your headline.   I recommend that you write your job title and a catchy phrase, tagline, or Unique Selling Proposition. Examples: High-Powered Financial and Analytical Trainer | Propelling International Business Teams to the Top Program, Process and Project Manager | Creating and Implementing Innovative Technological Solutions Managed Care Professional | Building relationships with attention and integrity For more ideas on catchy headlines, see my article, Your LinkedIn Profile *HEADLINE* What Would Draw You In? 3.   You are a business owner or professional and you want people to find you.* If you are a business owner or professional wanting to attract clients, stack your headline with the keywords your clients would be searching on.   My headline says: Essay Resume Writer | Executive Resumes | Personal Statements | LinkedIn Profiles | Web Copy The result of having these keywords in my headline (and also in my summary, specialties and job titles) is that many people find me when they are seeking the services I provide. During admission season I change my keywords to emphasize college essays and MBA Admissions consulting. Change your keywords as much as you want until you get the number of visitors to your site each day that you’re looking for. 4.   You are a business owner or professional and you just want to build a close network of solid business connections. If you are laying low on LinkedIn and selectively building a network, really all you need is your job title and organization.   LinkedIn will take care of that for you. *NOTE TO THOSE IN CATEGORIES 1 3:   Remember that the number of hits you get on your LinkedIn profile will always increase when you increase your number of connections.   For more on that topic please view my signature webinar, How to Write a Killer LinkedIn Profile. BEWARE of the LinkedIn Default!   If you update your current job position, LinkedIn automatically changes your headline unless you catch the box that lets you opt out.   If this happens, take control and change your headline if you want it to say something different! Like so many things, there is no â€Å"one size fits all† answer to the LinkedIn Headline question.   If you’re not sure what the best way is to approach yours, comment below or contact The Essay Expert for assistance in crafting a KILLER LinkedIn Profile!

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Biography of Rebecca Nurse, Salem Witch Trials Victim

Biography of Rebecca Nurse, Salem Witch Trials Victim Rebecca Nurse (February 21, 1621–July 19, 1692) was a victim of the notorious Salem witch trials, hanged as a witch at 71 years of age. Despite being a fervent churchgoer and an upstanding member of the community- a newspaper of the day referred to her as saint-like and a perfect example of good Puritan behavior- she was accused, tried, and convicted of witchcraft and put to death without the legal protections Americans would come to enjoy. Fast Facts: Rebecca Nurse Known For: Hanged during the 1692 Salem witch trialsAlso Known As: Rebecca Towne, Rebecca Town, Rebecca Nourse, Rebecka Nurse. Goody Nurse, Rebeca NurceBorn: February 21, 1621 in Yarmouth, EnglandParents: William Towne, Joanna BlessingDied: July 19, 1692 in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay ColonySpouse: Francis NurseChildren: Rebecca, Sarah, John, Samuel, Mary, Elizabeth, Francis, Benjamin (and sometimes Michael) Early Life Rebecca Nurse was born on Feb. 21, 1621 (some sources give this as her baptism date), in Yarmouth, England, to William Towne and Joanna Blessing. Her entire family, including several siblings, immigrated to the  Massachusetts Bay Colony  sometime between 1638 and 1640. Rebecca married Francis Nurse, who also came from Yarmouth, around 1644. They raised four sons and four daughters on a farm in Salem Village, now  Danvers, Massachusetts, 10 miles inland from the bustling port community of Salem Town, now Salem. All but one of their children were married by 1692. Nurse, a member of Salem Church, was known for her piety but also for occasionally losing her temper. She and the Putnam family had fought in court several times over land. During the witch trials, many of the accused had been enemies of the  Putnams, and Putnam family members and in-laws were the accusers in many cases. Trials Begin Public accusations of witchcraft in Salem Village began on Feb. 29, 1692. The first accusations were leveled against three women who werent considered respectable: Tituba, an Indian slave; Sarah Good, a homeless mother; and Sarah Osborne, who had a somewhat scandalous history. Then on March 12, Martha Corey was accused; Nurse followed on March 19. Both women were church members and respected, prominent members of the community. Arrested A warrant issued on March 23 for Nurses arrest included complaints of attacks on Ann Putnam Sr., Ann Putnam Jr., Abigail Williams, and others. Nurse was arrested and examined the next day. She was accused by townspeople Mary Walcott, Mercy Lewis, and Elizabeth Hubbard as well as by Ann Putnam Sr., who cried out during the proceedings to accuse Nurse of trying to get her to tempt God and dye. Several spectators adopted head motions indicating that they were in Nurses thrall. Nurse was then indicted for witchcraft. On April 3, Nurses younger sister, Sarah Cloyce (or Cloyse), came to Nurses defense. She was accused and arrested on April 8. On April 21, another sister, Mary Easty (or Eastey), was arrested after defending their innocence. On May 25, judges John Hathorne and Jonathan Corwin ordered the Boston jail to take custody of Nurse, Corey, Dorcas Good (Sarahs daughter, age 4), Cloyce, and John and Elizabeth Parker for acts of witchcraft committed against Williams, Hubbard, Ann Putnam Jr., and others. Testimony A deposition written by Thomas Putnam, signed on May 31, detailed accusations of torment of his wife, Ann Putnam Sr., by Nurses and Coreys specters, or spirits, on March 18 and 19. Another deposition detailed accusations of afflictions on March 21 and 23 caused by Nurses specter. On June 1, townsperson Mary Warren testified that George Burroughs, Nurse, Elizabeth Proctor, and several others said they were going to a feast and that when she refused to eat bread and wine with them, they dreadfully afflicted her and that Nurse appeared in the room during the taking of the deposition. On June 2, Nurse, Bridget Bishop, Proctor, Alice Parker, Susannah Martin, and Sarah Good were forced to undergo physical examinations by a doctor with a number of women present. A preternathurall Excresence of flesh was reported on the first three. Nine women signed the document attesting to the exam. A second exam later that day stated that several of the observed physical abnormalities had changed; they attested that on Nurse, the Excresence ... appears only as a dry skin without sense at this later exam. Again, nine women signed the document. Indicted The next day, a grand jury indicted Nurse and John Willard for witchcraft. A petition from 39 neighbors was presented on Nurses behalf, and several neighbors and relatives testified for her. Witnesses testified for and against Nurse on June 29 and 30. The jury found Nurse not guilty but returned guilty verdicts for Good, Elizabeth How, Martin, and Sarah Wildes. The accusers and spectators protested loudly when the verdict was announced. The court asked the jury to reconsider the verdict; they found her guilty after reviewing the evidence and discovering that she had failed to answer one question put to her (perhaps because she was nearly deaf). She was condemned to hang. Massachusetts Gov. William Phips issued a reprieve, which was also met with protests and rescinded. Nurse filed a petition protesting the verdict, pointing out she was hard of hearing and full of grief. On July 3, the Salem Church excommunicated Nurse. Hanged On July 12, Judge William Stoughton signed death warrants for Nurse, Good, Martin, How, and Wildes. All five were hanged on July 19 on Gallows Hill. Good  cursed the presiding clergyman, Nicholas Noyes, from the gallows, saying if you take away my life God will give you blood to drink. (Years later, Noyes died of a brain hemorrhage; legend has it that he choked on his blood.) That night, Nurses family removed her body and buried it secretly on their family farm. Of Nurses two sisters who also were charged with witchcraft, Easty was hanged on Sept. 22 and Cloyces case was dismissed in January 1693. Pardons and Apology In May 1693, Phips pardoned the remaining defendants accused of witchcraft. Francis Nurse died on Nov. 22, 1695, two years after the trials had ended. That was before Nurse and 21 others of the 33 who had been convicted were exonerated in 1711 by the state, which paid compensation to the families of the victims. In 1957, Massachusetts  formally apologized for the trials, but It wasnt until 2001 that the last 11 of those convicted were fully exonerated. On Aug. 25, 1706, Ann Putnam Jr. publicly apologized for the accusing of several persons of a grievous crime, whereby their lives were taken away from them, whom, now I have just grounds and good reason to believe they were innocent persons... She named Nurse specifically. In 1712, Salem Church reversed Nurses excommunication. Legacy The abuses of the Salem witch trials contributed to changes in U.S. court procedures, including the guarantee of the right to legal representation, the right to cross-examine one’s accuser, and the presumption of innocence instead of guilt. The trials as a metaphor for the persecution of minority groups remained powerful images into the 20th and 21st centuries, particularly in playwright  Arthur Millers The Crucible  (1953), in which he used events and individuals from 1692 allegorically for the anti-communist hearings led by Sen.  Joseph McCarthy  during the  Red Scare  of the 1950s. The Rebecca Nurse homestead still stands in Danvers, the new name of Salem Village, and is open to tourists. Sources Salem Witch Trials: American History. Encyclopedia Britannica.The Witchcraft Trial of Rebecca Nurse. History of Massachusetts blog.An Unexpected Turn in the Trials. The Salem Journal.

Monday, February 17, 2020

Analysis the Marine Corps hymn Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Analysis the Marine Corps hymn - Essay Example the shores of Tripoli† and â€Å"To the Shores of Tripoli† which are the first two lines of the first stanza had been coined by 1850, part of the Marine Corps lore then. The Marine Corps Hymn features several literary devices that serve to emphasize its message, give its rhythm, and point to the history of the U.S. Marine Corps. I chose to analyse the Marine Corps Hymn for its place in the hearts of the Marine Corps and reassign message to U.S. nationals. The Marine Corps Hymn which has three stanzas tells the story of the pride that officers serving in the Marine Corps have in what they do for their country. While the first stanza is a proclamation of what the Marine Corps do, the second stanza is a declaration of their commitment to the service of the nation wherever and whenever they are needed. The last stanza which takes on a more celebratory tone passes a message of good will to those in service to the nation as Marines while at the same time serving as a declaration that the streets of the U.S. are always guarded by the Marine Corps. The hymn is which makes mention of different settings including the Halls of Montezuma, Shores of Tripoli, far-off Northern lands, and tropic areas is itself set in no particular place or environment. The hymn features the Marine Corpse as the main character. The Marin Corps tell of their character in the hymn. In the verse, â€Å"First to fight for right and freedom† (6), the Marine Corpse present themselves as people who are brave and committed to the good of the nation. One of the literary devices that feature prominently in the hymn is repetition. In every stanza, the phrase United States Marine is repeated. The repetition of the phrase serves to give emphasis to the fact that the Marines are proud of who they are and their service to the country and are greatly committed to their work. This is evident in the lines, â€Å"We are proud to claim the title   of United States Marine† (1). Yet another device that is evidently